Types of electric vehicles
Faced with the commitment to change our mobility to one that is adapted to the needs of the environment, there are many options and the choice can be a little confusing.
In an attempt to throw some light on this issue, we explain the types of electric vehicles you may want to consider when making your purchase:
Types of electric vehicles
Battery electric vehicles (BEV)
Pure electric vehicle, the vehicle is powered by the energy stored in its batteries.
It must be plugged in to charge the battery and its charging speed will depend on the power of the chargers to which it can be connected (maximum supported power).
They are considered the most efficient cars, they do not pollute when driving, but their manufacturing process has a higher environmental cost.
Hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEV)
Hydrogen-powered vehicles do not rely on batteries as pure electric vehicles do.
Hydrogen fuel cell cars generate electricity through the electrolysis of hydrogen, which emits only H₂O (water) as a waste product.
Hydrogen is the most abundant chemical element on Earth, but it is never present on its own and its production has a high energy cost.
Extended Range Electric Vehicle (EVER)
Extended-range electric vehicles are electric vehicles in which the electric motor is responsible for driving the wheels using the energy stored in the batteries, but to which a heat engine is added as a generator.
The condition for extended-range electric vehicles not to be treated as hybrids is that the combustion engine does not drive the wheels and that it can be used as a pure electric car most of the time. It can be charged like a regular electric car.
Plug-in hybrid vehicle (PHEV)
Plug-in hybrid cars have a combustion engine together with one (or several) electric motors and all can drive the car independently or together, and can be fitted to the wheels, axles or gearbox.
Recharging is by connection to the electricity grid.
The driver can choose the driving mode in which the vehicle operates, or even combine the operation of both to extend the range. I
n addition, in some cases, the combustion engine can be used to charge the batteries of the electric motor.
Hybrid electric vehicle (HEV)
Hybrid cars were the first mass-produced electric vehicles.
The approach is simpler than PHEVs, as they integrate an electric motor to assist and relieve the combustion engine in order to lower fuel consumption.
Hybrids can be driven in 100% electric mode, but their range is very limited because they have small batteries. In this case, regenerative braking and the combustion engine itself are also used to recharge them.
Micro-hybrid cars (MHEV)
These are thermal vehicles to which a small electric assistance system is adapted, usually through the adoption of a starter motor/generator that can recover energy that is stored in a small 48V battery.
This energy is used to help the internal combustion engine to push during acceleration phases or is used to feed the electrical consumption of some systems to take the strain off the internal combustion engine.
A micro-hybrid car will never be able to run in 100% electric mode.
We hope this information has been useful to all of you who are thinking of changing your car.
And, just to finish, remember to consider daily or monthly usage and kilometres driven to assess the type of electric vehicle that best suits your needs.